Mongolian diverse and distinctive vegetation includes an important part
of plant life in Asia. Species representing Siberian coniferous taiga
forest, Central Asian steppe and desert, and the Altai and Sayan
Mountains all occur here. Steppe plants from Kazakhstan grow beside
Manchurian steppe flowers. More than 3,000 species of vascular plants,
927 lichens, 437 mosses, 875 fungi and numerous algae have been
recorded. Many other species, however, remain to be classified.
Mongolia's flora includes almost 150 endemic plants and nearly 100 relic
species. Over 100 plant species are listed in the Mongolian Red Book as
rare or endangered. Like its vegetation, fauna of Mongolia represents a
mixture of species from the northern taiga of Siberia, the steppe and
the deserts of Central Asia. Fauna includes 136 species of mammals,
436 birds, 8 amphibians, 22 reptiles, 75 fish and numerous invertebrates.
Species endemic to Central Asia are found primarily in the Gobi and
desert steppe including the Mongolian subspecies of the Saiga antilope
Tatarica mongolica, four species of jerboa and a vole that are
endemic to Central Asia. The birds include the Altai Snowcock
Tetraogallus altaicus and Kozlov's accentor Prunella
kozlovi. Reptiles endemic to Central Asia include eight species.
Endemic fish include the Altai Osman Oreoloeuciscus potanini and
the Mongolian grayling Thymallus brevirostris. Numerous globally
threatened and endangered species occur in Mongolia.