Mongolia is known to the world as country of "Blue Sky". It has a
continental climate, with long, cold, dry winters and brief, mild, and
relatively wet summers. When Arctic air masses dominate in mid-winter,
temperatures average 68° F (-20° C) to 95° F (-35° C).
In the Uvs Lake basin in northwestern Mongolia, known as one of the
coldest places in all of Asia, the lowest temperature ever recorder is
136° F (-58° C). By contrast, summer time temperatures in the
Gobi desert climb as high as 104° F (40° C). Annual precipitation
ranges from 24 inches (600 mm.) in the Khentii, Altai, and Khuvsgul
Mountains to less than 4 inches (100 mm.) in the Gobi. In some parts of
the Gobi, no precipitation may fall for several years in a row. Mongolia
has 4 seasons. These are spring, summer, autumn and winter.
Spring comes after a severe winter, days become longer, and nights
shorter. It is the time for snow to melt and for animals to come out from
hibernation. All animals and livestock breed while the soil thaws in the
warm spring weather. In Mongolia "Khansh neekh" means some animals,
which hibernated, awoke from their sleep. Spring is the prosperous
season of the year when everybody is calm and relaxed; grass turns greem,
anemones grow up and nature is covered with its green dress. Beginning
in March spring usually lasts about 60 days although it can be as long
as 70 days or as short as 45 days in some areas of the country. For
people and livestock, it is also a harsh season of the driest and the
most windy days although it gets warm in spring, livestock breed and
gain their weight, and grass becomes green.
Summer is the warmest season in Mongolia. Generally, precipitation is
higher in summer than any time of the year. Rivers and streams are at
their fullest in summer. It is the time when pasture, grass and crops
grow and livestock gain weight and fat. It is the most pleasant time
with abundant dairy products and there are many feasts and holidays
of happy people. In Mongolia, summer lasts about 100 days from the
end of May until September. July is the warmest month of summer and it
is 59° F (15° C) and 68° (20° C) in mountainous areas
of Khangai region, 68° F (20° C) and 77° F (25° C) in
the steppes and the highest temperature is between 90° F (32° C)
and 95° F (35° C) in Khangai and 104° F (40° C) and
106° F (41° C) in Gobi. Sometimes it reaches 122° F
(50° C) in Gobi.
Autumn in Mongolia ifs the season of transition from the hot and wet
summer to the cold and dry winter. There is less rainfall in autumn.
Gradually it gets cooler and vegetables and grains are harvested at this
time. Pasture and forests become yellow. Flies die and livestock is fat
and woolly in preparation for the winter. Autumn is an important season
in Mongolia in order to prepare for winter; harvesting the crops,
vegetables and fodder; getting ready their cattle barns and sheds;
preparing firewood and warming up their homes and so on. Autumn lasts
about 60 days from the beginning of September until the early November.
In some years, there are many long and sunny days in autumn.
In Mongolia, winter is the most severe, the coldest and longest season.
All rivers, lakes, streams and ponds freeze in winter. It snows
throughout the country, but not heavily. After making all the necessary
preparations for a long winter, herdsmen stay at their winter camps.
Winter starts early in November and lasts about 110 days until March.
Sometimes it snows in September and November, but the heavy snow usually
occurs at the beginning of October. January is the coldest winter month
in Mongolia and the mean temperature is 95° F (-25° C) in Khangai
mountain regions, 59° F (-15° C) in Gobi and 68° F
(-20° C) and 77° F (-25° C) in the other parts of the country.
However, 50° F (-10° C) in Europe means 68° F (-20° C)